State of the matter:
Generally in Physics, the state of matter is classified into four types. They’re:
However there are other states that exist like Bose-Einstein Condensates, Liquid Crystal, Neutron Degenerate Matter, etc. But they can exist only in extreme conditions.
Bose-Einstein Condensate is also called the fifth state of matter and it can be formed by cooling a gas of extremely low density about 100 000 times the density of normal air to ultra-low temperatures. At this extreme temperature atoms lost their individuality and show some changes in their behavior. The two scientists Dr. Einstein and Dr. Satyendra Nath Bose work together for the fifth sate of matter. To honor them we call it Bose-Einstein Condensate.
Now Dr. Amruta Gadge created the fifth state of matter by remotely control lasers and radio waves with the help of her computer at home. So the researchers in the university believe that this is the first creation of a BEC remotely. This is not a small thing to achieve without lab equipment. Because the fifth state of an element requires unusual factors to be created. So the University of Sussex and also Indians felt happy with her creation.
She was not the first person who discovered it. Now the question was what was new about the breakthrough, she replied like this “The Bose-Einstein Condensate was achieved in the lab in 1995 US. And there has been a Noble Prize for that work. So BEC is not new but you need to understand the effort that is required to achieve this condensate. It was developed in the 1920s and achieved in the lab was in 1995. But now what’s new is that we are able to do it remotely.”
She expressed her views like, “The research team has been observing lockdown and working from home and so we have not been able to access our labs for weeks. The process has been a lot slower than if I had been in the lab as the experiment is unstable and I’ve had to give 10 to 15 minutes of cooling time between each run.”
The fifth state of matter is produced when the atoms in a gas get ionized means they reach at Absolute zero. It represents the atoms were reached at the lowest limit of the thermodynamic temperature scale. At this extremely low-temperature a large number of small particles or atoms behave like a single particle. This effect was predicted in the mid-1920s and took 75 years for practical proof. The first BEC was created in 1995 by cooling a gas of around 2000 rubidium atoms. In 2001, Eric A. Cornell, Wolfgang Ketterle, and Karl E. Wieman got a Nobel prize for their effort in Bose-Einstein Condensation.
In response to this, Peter Kruger, professor at the University of Sussex said “We are all extremely excited that we can continue to conduct our experiments remotely during the lockdown, and any possible future lockdowns. Enhancing the capabilities of remote lab control is relevant for research applications aimed at operating quantum technology in inaccessible environments such as space, underground in a submarine, or in extreme climates.”
What’s the use of the fifth state of matter?
Because it is a part of quantum technology, the fifth state of matter have versatile use. It can use in space researches and explore new things. So that scientists has created this fifth state of matter in space too. This shows us how much it is important in the physical research. This quantum technology also helps in making quantum computers and finding new things in the deep sea. Simply, it can do the things that normal people can’t do in extreme conditions.